The Growing Season PDF Free Download

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  1. вегетационный сезон
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The system is based on both the hypothesis and observations that grapevines do not grow if the temperature is below 50 °F (10 °C). Each day during the growing season (assumed under the system to be April 1 through October 31 in the Northern Hemisphere; October 1 through April 30 in the Southern Hemisphere) are assigned growing degree-days according to the amount that the day's. Growing degree days (GDD), also called growing degree units (GDUs), are a heuristic tool in phenology.GDD are a measure of heat accumulation used by horticulturists, gardeners, and farmers to predict plant and animal development rates such as the date that a flower will bloom, an insect will emerge from dormancy, or a crop will reach maturity. Yields, and planting under cloches means you can start earlier and continue later at the other end of the growing season (see p. Fruit.pdf - Free download Ebook, Handbook, Textbook, User Guide PDF files on the internet quickly and easily. Purdue Consumer Horticulture Resources Latest Indiana Gardening Articles from Purdue In the Grow Articles Get your questions answered here. Yard and Garden News Articles for every season in Indiana. Garden Calendars Find out what to do each month! Gardening Publications and Programs Purdue Extension Bulletins Purdue Plant and Pest Diagnostic Laboratory Purdue Emerald Ash Borer Update Purdue.

The Growing Season PDF Free Download

вегетационный сезон
Период или периоды года, в который растения активно растут в данной зоне, месте производства или участке производства (ФАО, 1990; пересмотрено ВКФМ, 2003).
[Mеждународные стандарты по фитосанитарным мерам МСФМ № 5. Глоссарий фитосанитарных терминов]

Тематики

  • защита растений

The Growing Season Pdf Free Download 64 Bit

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The Growing Season PDF Free Download

  • growing season

FR

  • saison de végétation

Англо-русский словарь нормативно-технической терминологии. academic.ru. 2015.

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Growing degree days (GDD), also called growing degree units (GDUs), are a heuristic tool in phenology. GDD are a measure of heat accumulation used by horticulturists, gardeners, and farmers to predict plant and animal development rates such as the date that a flower will bloom, an insect will emerge from dormancy, or a crop will reach maturity.

Introduction[edit]

In the absence of extreme conditions such as unseasonal drought or disease, plants grow in a cumulative stepwise manner which is strongly influenced by the ambient temperature. Growing degree days take aspects of local weather into account and allow gardeners to predict (or, in greenhouses, even to control) the plants' pace toward maturity.

Unless stressed by other environmental factors like moisture, the development rate from emergence to maturity for many plants depends upon the daily air temperature. Because many developmental events of plants and insects depend on the accumulation of specific quantities of heat, it is possible to predict when these events should occur during a growing season regardless of differences in temperatures from year to year. Growing degrees (GDs) is defined as the number of temperature degrees above a certain threshold base temperature, which varies among crop species. The base temperature is that temperature below which plant growth is zero. GDs are calculated each day as maximum temperature plus the minimum temperature divided by 2, minus the base temperature. GDUs are accumulated by adding each day's GDs contribution as the season progresses.

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GDUs can be used to: assess the suitability of a region for production of a particular crop; estimate the growth-stages of crops, weeds or even life stages of insects; predict maturity and cutting dates of forage crops; predict best timing of fertilizer or pesticide application; estimate the heat stress on crops; plan spacing of planting dates to produce separate harvest dates. Crop specific indices that employ separate equations for the influence of the daily minimum (nighttime) and the maximum (daytime) temperatures on growth are called crop heat units (CHUs).

GDD calculation[edit]

GDD are calculated by taking the integral of warmth above a base temperature,[1]Tbase (plant type dependant, see baseline section):

GDD=(T(t)Tbase)dt{displaystyle GDD=int (T(t)-T_{mathrm {base} })dt} (where integration is over the time period with T(t)>Tbase{displaystyle T(t)>T_{mathrm {base} }}).

A simpler, approximately equivalent formulation uses the average of the daily maximum and minimum temperatures compared to a Tbase. As an equation:

GDD=Tmax+Tmin2Tbase.{displaystyle GDD={frac {T_{mathrm {max} }+T_{mathrm {min} }}{2}}-T_{mathrm {base} }.}

If the minimum temperature Tmin is below the Tbase one, there exist two variants:

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  • variant A: Do not change Tmin{displaystyle T_{mathrm {min} }}. Only if (Tmax+Tmin)/2<Tbase{displaystyle (T_{mathrm {max} }+T_{mathrm {min} })/2<T_{mathrm {base} }}, set (Tmax+Tmin)/2=Tbase{displaystyle (T_{mathrm {max} }+T_{mathrm {min} })/2=T_{mathrm {base} }}. The resulting GDD is 0. This can be written more compactly as: GDD=max(Tmax+Tmin2Tbase,0){displaystyle GDD=max {left({frac {T_{mathrm {max} }+T_{mathrm {min} }}{2}}-T_{mathrm {base} },0right)}}
  • variant B: Change Tmin<Tbase{displaystyle T_{mathrm {min} }<T_{mathrm {base} }} to Tmin=Tbase{displaystyle T_{mathrm {min} }=T_{mathrm {base} }}


GDDs are typically measured from the winter low. Any temperature below Tbase is set to Tbase before calculating the average. Likewise, the maximum temperature is usually capped at 30 °C because most plants and insects do not grow any faster above that temperature. However, some warm temperate and tropical plants do have significant requirements for days above 30 °C to mature fruit or seeds.

Harvest

Example of GDD calculation[edit]

For example, a day with a high of 23 °C and a low of 12 °C (and a base of 10 °C) would contribute 7.5 GDDs.

23+12210=7.5{displaystyle {frac {23+12}{2}}-10=7.5}
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As a second example, a day with a high of 13 °C and a low of 5 °C (and a base of 10 °C) would contribute:

  • version A: 0 GDD, as: max((13+5)/210,0)=0{displaystyle max((13+5)/2-10,0)=0})
  • version B: 1.5 GDDs, as: (13+10)/210=11.510=1.5{displaystyle (13+10)/2-10=11.5-10=1.5}

Plant development[edit]

Common nameLatin nameNumber of growing degree days baseline 10 °C
Witch-hazelHamamelis spp.begins flowering at <1 GDD
Red mapleAcer rubrumbegins flowering at 1-27 GDD
ForsythiaForsythia spp.begin flowering at 1-27 GDD
Sugar mapleAcer saccharumbegin flowering at 1-27 GDD
Norway mapleAcer platanoidesbegins flowering at 30-50 GDD
White ashFraxinus americanabegins flowering at 30-50 GDD
CrabappleMalus spp.begins flowering at 50-80 GDD
Common broomCytisus scopariusbegins flowering at 50-80 GDD
HorsechestnutAesculus hippocastanumbegin flowering at 80-110 GDD
Common lilacSyringa vulgarisbegin flowering at 80-110 GDD
Beach plumPrunus maritimafull bloom at 80-110 GDD
Black locustRobinia pseudoacaciabegins flowering at 140-160 GDD
CatalpaCatalpa speciosabegins flowering at 250-330 GDD
PrivetLigustrum spp.begins flowering at 330-400 GDD
ElderberrySambucus canadensisbegins flowering at 330-400 GDD
Purple loosestrifeLythrum salicariabegins flowering at 400-450 GDD
SumacRhus typhinabegins flowering at 450-500 GDD
Butterfly bushBuddleia davidiibegins flowering at 550-650 GDD
Corn (maize)Zea mays800 to 2700 GDD to crop maturity
Dry beansPhaseolus vulgaris1100-1300 GDD to maturity depending on cultivar and soil conditions
Sugar beetBeta vulgaris130 GDD to emergence and 1400-1500 GDD to maturity
BarleyHordeum vulgare125-162 GDD to emergence and 1290-1540 GDD to maturity
Wheat (hard red)Triticum aestivum143-178 GDD to emergence and 1550-1680 GDD to maturity
OatsAvena sativa1500-1750 GDD to maturity
European corn borerOstrinia nubilalis207 - Emergence of first spring moths

Pest control[edit]

Insect development and growing degree days are also used by some farmers and horticulturalists to time their use of organic or biological pest control or other pest control methods so they are applying the procedure or treatment at the point that the pest is most vulnerable. For example:

  • Black cutworm larvae have grown large enough to start causing economic damage at 165 GDD
  • Azalea lace bug emerges at about 130 GDD
  • Boxwood leafminer emerges at about 250 GDD

Honeybees[edit]

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Several beekeepers are now researching the correlation between growing degree-days and the life cycle of a honeybee colony.[2]

Baselines[edit]

The optimal base temperature is often determined experimentally based on the life cycle of the plant or insect in question. Common baselines for crops are either 5 °C for cool-season plants and 10 °C for warm-season plants and most insect development.

Crops[edit]

  • 4.5 °C wheat, barley, rye, oats, flaxseed, lettuce, asparagus,[3]'canning purposes'[4]
  • 8 °C sunflower, potato[3]
  • 10 °C maize (including sweet corn), sorghum, rice, soybeans, tomato, coffee,[5]grapes, snap beans, lima beans[3][4]
  • 30 °C the USDA measure heat zones in GDD above 30 °C; for many plants this is significant for seed maturation, e.g. reed (Phragmites) requires at least some days reaching this temperature to mature viable seeds

Pests[edit]

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  • 6 °C Stalk borer
  • 7 °C Corn rootworm
  • 9 °C Alfalfa weevil
  • 10 °C Black cutworm, European corn borer, standard baseline for insect and mite pests of woody plants
  • 11 °C Green cloverworm

Modified growing degree days[edit]

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In the cases of some plants, not only do they require a certain minimum temperature to grow, but they will also stop growing above a warmer threshold temperature. In such cases, a modified growing degree day is used: the growing degree days are calculated at the lower baseline, then at the higher baseline, which is subtracted. Corn is an example of this: it starts growing at 10 °C and stops at 30 °C, meaning any growing degree-days above 30 °C do not count.[3]

Units[edit]

GDDs may be calculated in either Celsius or Fahrenheit, though they must be converted appropriately; for every 9 GDDF there are 5 GDDC, or in conversion calculation:

GDDC = 5/9 * GDDF

The equivalent unit compliant with the International System of Units is the kelvin-second. A quantity of kelvin-seconds is four orders of magnitude higher than the corresponding degree day (1 Celsius degree-day is 8.64×104 K·s; 1 Fahrenheit degree-day is 4.8×104 K·s).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates public domain material from the Congressional Research Service document: Jasper Womach. 'Report for Congress: Agriculture: A Glossary of Terms, Programs, and Laws, 2005 Edition'(PDF).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Prentice, I. Colin; Cramer, Wolfgang; Harrison, Sandy P.; Leemans, Rik; Monserud, Robert A.; Solomon, Allen M. (1992). 'Special Paper: A Global Biome Model Based on Plant Physiology and Dominance, Soil Properties and Climate'. Journal of Biogeography. 19 (2): 117–134. doi:10.2307/2845499. ISSN0305-0270. JSTOR2845499.
  2. ^Ellsworth, Denise (April 2, 2015). 'Phenology and its value to beekeepers'. Bee Culture. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  3. ^ abcd'Explanation of Growing Degree Days'. Midwestern Regional Climate Center. Retrieved April 19, 2019.
  4. ^ ab'National Weather Service Glossary: G'. National Weather Service. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  5. ^Jaramillo R., A. and Guzman M., O. Relationship between temperature and growth in Coffea arabica L. var. Caturra. Cenicafé (Colombia) 35(3):57-65. 1984.

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External links[edit]

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